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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 67-72

Contributions of the South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis and the Indian Society for Atherosclerosis Research, to our understanding of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis

Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Date of Web Publication18-Jul-2016

Correspondence Address:
Gundu H R Rao
12500 Park Potomac Ave Unit 306N, Potomac, MD 20854
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2250-3528.186501

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South Asians (Indians, Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and Sri Lankans) have very high incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, such as hypertension, central abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke. To create awareness, develop educational and a prevention program, a professional society was started at the University of Minnesota in 1993. This society (South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis Thrombosis) organized international conferences in India every other year, on the topic of "Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis" and published several monographs on this subject. During the same period, another sister society, Indian Society of Atherosclerosis Research (ISAR) was started in India, which organized conferences on topics related to basic research and clinical aspects of atherosclerosis. Together, these professional societies have contributed significantly to our understanding of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. SASAT is currently located at the Division of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, Medanta, The MediCity, New Delhi, India and is affiliated with the professional journal; Journal of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology. For information on ISAR, readers are urged to visit their web site: www. isar.co.in.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Coronary Artery Disease, ISAR, SASAT, South Asians, Thrombosis

How to cite this article:
Rao GH. Contributions of the South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis and the Indian Society for Atherosclerosis Research, to our understanding of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. J Clin Prev Cardiol 2016;5:67-72

How to cite this URL:
Rao GH. Contributions of the South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis and the Indian Society for Atherosclerosis Research, to our understanding of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. J Clin Prev Cardiol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Nov 26];5:67-72. Available from: https://www.jcpconline.org/text.asp?2016/5/2/67/186501

  Introduction Top

South Asians have the highest incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), compared to any other ethnic group in the world. In addition, they also have a very high incidence of metabolic disorders such as hypertension, central abdominal obesity, Type-2 diabetes (T2D), vascular disorders, and stroke. To establish collaborative platforms in India, Professor John W Eaton and I obtained a travel grant from the National Science Foundation (http://www.nsf.gov), USA, and visited India in 1980. We visited several medical colleges and research institutions from Kashmir in the North to Trivandrum in the South. In the years following this visit, it became evident that platelet and endothelial cell physiology and function modulate acute vascular events associated with these chronic metabolic diseases. To facilitate the development of research and clinical studies on these cells, I was invited to India, by the Government of India in 1990, under a unique United Nations Program called "TOKTEN," which stands for Transfer of Knowledge through Expatriate Nationals. My application to the United Nations/Council of Scientific and Industrial Research was sponsored by Dr. Khalilullah, the Director G.B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi, and coordinated by the CSIR. Under this program, I visited India 3 years in a row (1990, 1991, and 1992) and spent considerable amount of time at major medical institutions. During these visits, I learnt that the South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, and Sri Lankans) have very high incidence of cardiometabolic disease including hypertension, visceral obesity, metabolic syndrome, T2D, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. To create awareness, develop educational and preventive programs, with a small grant (USD10,000) from the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (www.isth.org), USA, I started a society South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (SASAT), in Minnesota in 1993. We also published our first article on coronary artery risk factors in the Indian Heart Journal (145:143-153, 1993). This essay is not about cataloging conferences organized by SASAT, but a narration about the development of a concept and the growth of a worldwide network of experts in the area of thrombosis and hemostasis. I welcome the leaders of the Indian Society for Atherosclerosis Research (ISAR), to develop a similar essay on their contribution and achievement in the last two decades.

Just a few years before this time (1987), a group of prominent basic scientists (Prof. R.N. Charkvarthy, Prof. R.A. Kurup Dr. (Mrs.) S.P. Taskar, and Dr. Chatterjee decided to start a professional society for research on atherosclerosis. Prof. S. Dwivedi, Prof. G. Subrmanyam, Prof. M.E. Yolekar, Prof. Sudhakaran, Prof. Rama Gopalan, and Prof. D.K. Srivastava also were involved in the genesis of a society for experimental atherosclerosis research under the banner of the ISAR. The first president of this professional society was none other than Dr. Rabindra Nath Chakravarti, a prominent researcher in the field of experimental atherosclerosis from the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Chandigarh. The society is affiliated with the International Atherosclerosis Society. The members of this society meet annually at different locations in India, to discuss advances in clinical and experimental research in this area under the title of "ISARCON." This is a multidisciplinary society, whose members are biochemists, clinical chemists, molecular biologists, pathologists, cardiologists, cardiovascular scientists, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, medicinal chemists, and vascular surgeons. They have a website (www.isar.co.in) with e-newsletters and e-news updates. People interested in learning more about the activities should contact the secretary of this society at [email protected]

  Contribution of Professional Societies and National Platforms for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases Top

The goals of public health experts and the policymakers have been to reduce the global health-care burden by developing robust educational and prevention strategies. With this objective in mind, the United Nations General Assembly developed the Millennium Development Goals, which have shaped the priorities and objectives for Global Development Efforts between 2000 and 2015 (www.unmillenniumproject.org/goals).

One of the global targets for noncommunicable disease is to halt by 2025, the rise in age-standardized adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. However, according to an extensive review by the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCDRisC), published in a recent issue of The Lancet (2016), these goals are not achievable. The collective interpretation of this group from 751 studies representing 4372,000 adults from 146 countries is as follows: Since 1980, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence has increased, or at least remained unchanged in every country. Together with population growth and aging, this rise has led to near quadrupling of the number of adults with diabetes worldwide. If post 2000 trends continue (which will continue), the probability of meeting the global target of halting the rise in the prevalence of diabetes by 2015 to the 2010 level worldwide is lower than 1% (the Lancet 387:1513-30, 2016). In view of these observations, which are not very encouraging, we urge that the professional societies in India should establish network, develop a consortium of experts, prepare guidelines, white papers, and policy recommendations for the better management of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. This provides a great window of opportunity to SASAT and ISAR to work together and develop educational and preventive programs.

  Educational Activities of The South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis in India Top

As mentioned earlier, I had secured seed funds (USD10,000) from ISTH of USA to organize a workshop in India. I needed a platform and infrastructure to organize such a meeting. I had met Dr. Dipika Mohanty during my visit to Chandigarh in 1980 and now she was heading an ICMR organization in Mumbai known as the Institute of Immuno-Hematology at KEM Campus. She graciously agreed to host the workshop. Once I told I had some funds for this workshop, she encouraged me to develop it into an International Conference on Thrombosis, Hemostasis and Transfusion Medicine. We also registered SASAT as a nonprofit professional society in the State of Maharashtra. We invited the administration of ISAR and requested them to join us in our efforts in organizing an international conference in Mumbai. The first joint SASAT-ISAR conference was held at the Tata Memorial Cancer Center auditorium in 1994. SASAT also initiated distinguished career awards; recipients were Prof. Vijay V. Kakkar, Prof. S. Padmavathi, Prof. S. Ramalinga Swamy, and Prof. S.P. Tripathi.

By invitation, the first president of SASAT International was Prof. Vijay Kakkar, the Director of Thrombosis Research Institute, London. Vice President of SASAT (USA) was Prof. Sandeep Mukherjee, Division of Cardiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut, USA. Secretary General was Professor Sampath Parthasarathy from Emory University, Atlanta, USA, and Chief Financial Officer was Prashanth T. Rao. The first President of SASAT India was Prof. M. L. Bhatia of Escorts Heart Hospital, New Delhi, India. Administrative Council Members included Prof. S. Thanikachalm, HOD Cardiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Chennai; Dr. V. Mohan, Director, Mohan's Diabetes Specialties Center, Chennai; Dr. Bela Shah, Senior Director, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi; Dr. Shanthi Mendis, Chief, NCD Division, WHO, Geneva; Prof. Gopal Acharya HOD Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Nepal; Dr. Enas A. Enas, Director CAD among Asian Indians (CADI) Research Foundation, Chicago, USA; Dr. Yashoda T. Rao, Radiation Oncologist, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; Prof. Dong Zhao, Director, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China; Dr. Azad Khan, Director Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Prof. Samad Shera Director, Diabetes Association of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan.

Following the success of the first International Conference, SASAT organized the second International Conference on Thrombosis Hemostasis and Transfusion Medicine in Ashoka Hotel, Bengaluru, in 1996, under the leadership of Dr. S. S. Iyengar HOD, Cardiology, St. John's College and Hospital. Impressed with the success of the first ever-funded conference of ISTH abroad, we were funded again (USD15,000) by the ISTH for this conference. Late Dr. Vijaya Srinivas was the treasurer and coordinator for this event. We were able to award 50 junior investigator awards to young scientists. Over fifty nonresident faculty from ten different countries participated in this event. Some of the prominent scientists/clinicians included Prof. Salvador Moncada, the Research Director from Welcome Research laboratory (1986-1995) UK; Prof. Barry Coller of ReoPro fame from Rockefeller Institute, New York, USA; Prof. Robert Coleman from Philadelphia, Prof. Gerhard Johnson from V.A. Hospitals, Minneapolis, Prof. Salim Yusuf from MacMasters, Canda; Dr. Enas Enas from Chicago, USA; Prof. Vijay Kakkar, Director Thrombosis Research Institute, London; and Prof. Sampath Parthasarathy and his team from Emory University Medical School, USA. When writing an essay like this one from memory, it is hard to remember and mention the names of all the important faculties who had participated. However, if anyone is left out, it is not intentional. Recipients of SASAT awards were Prof. M.L. Bhatia of Escorts Heart Institute, Prof. Rajendra Tandon, Ex-HOD Cardiology, AIIMS, Dr. G.V. Satyavati, Director ICMR, and Prof. M.S. Valiyathan, Vice Chancellor Manipal Academy.

The third International Conference on Thrombosis, Hemostasis and Transfusion Medicine was organized under the leadership of Prof. Naresh Trehan (SASAT President, New Delhi Chapter) of Escorts Heart Institute at India Habitat Center, New Delhi, in 1998. Prof. Ravi Kasliwal (SASAT Secretary) and Dr. Anjali Arora (SASAT Treasurer) played an important role in coordinating this event. Probably, we had the largest number of foreign faculties in this conference. Fifty junior investigator awards were given to young scientists. This conference also was partially (USD15,000) funded by the ISTH, USA. The SASAT 1998 symposium was approved for CME Credits, by the University of Minnesota School of Medicine, USA. Recipients of SASAT awards were Prof. K. Srinath Reddy, Cardiologist, AIIMS, Prof. R.N. Chakravarthy, HOD Atherosclerosis Research PGI Chandigarh, Prof. Naresh Trehan, Director, Escorts Heart Institute, Dr. Enas A. Enas, Director, CADI Research, Chicago; Prof. Sampath Parthasarathy, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA. Special Recognition Award: Yashoda T. Rao, MD Radiation Oncologist, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

By this time we had SASAT Chapters in many states of India. None other than Prof. M. S. Swaminathan inaugurated SASAT Chennai and Puducherry chapters on March 14, 1999. It was followed by a 1-day symposium on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis. SASAT organized Fourth International Symposium on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis at Bhaba Atomic Energy Research Center under the leadership of Dr. Dipika Mohanty, Director, Institute of Immunohematology (ICMR), Mumbai, in 2000. It is ironic that ISTH stop funding us due to some internal politics. Recipients of SASAT award were Prof. H. S. Wasir, Retired Professor of Cardiology AIIMS; Prof. N.K. Ganguly, Director, ICMR, Dr. B.K. Shadaksharappa, President, Indian College of Cardiology, Prof. M. Ramasharma, HOD Biochemistry IISC, Bengaluru; Dr. Sandhyamani, Professor of Pathology, SCTIMST, Trivandrum.

One of the foreign faculties who attended this conference was Prof. Jerome Markowtiz from the University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. He was so much impressed with the talent and availability of clinical opportunities in India; he decided to write a collaborative research project with Indian scientists and clinicians. Prof. Sam Parthasarathy and I were involved in the first round of writing of this proposal. Anyway, the National Institutes of Health, USA, funded this collaborative proposal and is still running at Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (MDRF), Chennai, under the leadership of V. Mohan, Director of this institute. Under this collaborative project, the staff from the US Universities (University of Minnesota and University of Alabama) visit Chennai every spring and offer an intensive training in epidemiology at MDRF.

SASAT organized Fifth International Symposium on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis at Sri Ramachandra Medical College, Chennai, under the leadership of S. Thanikachalam HOD Cardiology, in 2002. SASAT Kerala chapter organized a one-day preconference meeting at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, on October 24, 2002. SASAT released its first Monograph on CAD (JP Medical Publishers New Delhi). Recipients of SASAT awards were Dr. V. Mohan Director, MDRF, Chennai; Dr. Dipika Mohanty Director, Institute of Immuno-hematology, Mumbai; Dr. Bela Shah, Senior Director, ICMR, New Delhi; Prof. Sampath Parthasarathy, Emory University, Atlanta, USA.

SASAT organized the Sixth International symposium under the leadership of Dr. Soma Raju, HOD Cardiology, Care Hospital Hyderabad in 2004. Highlight of the symposium was an hour-long live TV interview with the President of India Dr. Abdul APJ Kalam with some participating delegates (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v = wzKMwcoqjW0).

Recipients of the SASAT Awards were Dr. Soma Raju, HOD Cardiology, Care Hospital, Hyderabad; Dr. Devi Prasad Shetty, Director of Narayana Hrudayalaya (NH), Bengaluru; Dr. Shanthi Mendis, Chief, NCD, WHO. Geneva; Dr. Salim Yusuf, Prof. Epidemiology, MacMaster University, Canada; Prof. Myron Gross, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, USA. In view of the fact that SASAT had completed a decade of educational work on CAD, we the members of the executive council thought that we should change our directions and expand our activities to cover other areas of vascular biology and pathology. We invited Prof. Jawed Fareed, Professor of Pharmacology and Pathology, Loyola School of Medicine, Chicago, USA, to take over as the President of SASAT, USA, and lead us to conduct our activities at National as well as International levels.

  South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis Initiatives Top

In the early 1990s, as the Founder and CEO of SASAT, I facilitated the visit of the President, Children's Heart Link (CHL), an NGO from Bloomington Minnesota, USA, to leading Heart Specialty Centers; Manipal Heart Foundation and Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiology (SJIC), Bengaluru. Volunteer staff consisting of clinicians and nursing staff from different US institutions worked with these hospitals and trained the staff in Bangalore Hospitals in the Art and Science of Pediatric Surgery. In view of this contribution, Dr. Devi Shetty, who left Manipal Heart Foundation and established his own heart specialty hospital NH, has named 1 unit at his NH campus as CHL-wing. SASAT also led a delegation of experts during early 1990s to the NCD Division of World Health Organization, Geneva, to present an out of the box concept of preventing NCDs. Dr. Devi P. Shetty also was a member of this delegation to Geneva. SASAT also initiated population-based studies in 21 Indian states on the effect of lifestyle on the development of CAD risks under the leadership of Prof. Rajeev Gupta of Jaipur. Prof. Prakash Deedwania of the University of California, at San Francisco, USA, funded these SASAT-sponsored population studies. SASAT organized a CME in Amsterdam for Physicians of Indian Origin in November of 2010. The title of the CME was Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease. Glenmark Pharma, India, funded this CME Program. Faculty for this CME Program was from SASAT and Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard University. SASAT organized a free screening clinic in Ladakh, India, in collaboration with Cardio-renal Society and Twin Epidemic Group of USA in the summer of 2013. Both of these events were coordinated by G. Muralidharan, COO, SASAT.

  South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis Educational Activities in India and Abroad Top

The SASAT organized the Seventh International Conference on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis in Hotel Le Meriden, Bengaluru, in 2006 under the leadership of C.N. Manjunath, Director, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research. During this conference Dr. V. Mohan and I met Dr. V.S Acharya Cabinet Minister for Medical Education (Karnataka) and convinced him the need for a cutting-edge-center for diabetes management. During the inaugural address, he promised us the allotment of 6 crore rupees, toward the development of an exclusive hospital: Karnataka Institute for Diabetes (www.kidbangalore.in). Prof. C. N. Manjunath graciously agreed to accommodate this institution to be located temporarily in the campus of SJICR, Bengaluru. KID website states, "KID is a unique, first of its kind and the only institute in the whole of the country under government arena, which is dedicated to provide holistic and state-of-the-art care to the diabetic population."

Under the leadership of Professor Fareed, SASAT got the affiliation with international professional platforms such as North American Thrombosis Forum (NATF), which is located at Harvard Campus and the International Union of Angiology (Paris, France). I represented SASAT as well as acted as an adviser, to the President of NATF (www.natfonline.org) and IUA (www.angiology.org) till my retirement from the University of Minnesota in 2012. Partial funding for the next three theme-based conferences came as unrestrained educational grants from SANOFI, a Global Healthcare Leader from Paris, France. These three theme-based conferences were coordinated by G. Muralidharan, COO, SASAT, India. SASAT organized the first International Summit on Generic Drugs, Biologics and Biosimilars at the Taj Hotel, New Delhi, India, in 2007. The Second International Summit on the same theme was organized at the India Habitat Center, New Delhi, in 2008. This summit was cosponsored by the Hematology Society of India. The Third International Summit on this theme was organized in Bengaluru, in 2010. SASAT affiliation with NATF and IUA brought us in contact with world leaders in area of venous thrombosis. We organized many workshops together, published guidelines, white papers, research articles, and monographs (see links). SASAT organized half-day symposiums with the World Congress of the International Union of Angiology at Lisbon, Portugal (2006); Athens, Greece (2008), Buenos Aires, Argentina (2010), Prague, Czech Republic (2012), Sydney, Australia (2014). As members of the Editorial Committee of IUA, we were able to recruit World's experts in venous thrombosis to contribute articles to a monograph on, "Clinical Handbook of Management of Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy." The IUA President, Dr. John Fletcher Professor of Surgery, University of Sydney, Australia, released this book during the XXVI World Congress of IUA in Sydney, Australia. SASAT organized an International Conference and a Workshop for Junior Medical Staff at the PSG Medical College Campus under the leadership of Dr. J. S. Bhuvaneshwaran in 2013. Mr. G. Muralidharan Coo, SASAT coordinated this event. At the invitation of Omics Group, I organized a ½-day symposium on "Novel Approaches to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes" at Dubai in 2015 during the 6 th Global Summit on Diabetes.

Apart from working with NATF and IUA for over a decade, SASAT also worked with other International Professional Societies including, American College of Cardiology, Cardio Renal Society of America, American Diabetes Association, American Heart Association, NCD Global Alliance, Partnership on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, and WHO. Recipients of SASAT Awards during 2006: Prof. C.N. Manjunath, Director, SJIC, Bengaluru; Prof. Prakash Deedwania of UCSF, USA; Prof. Sandeep Mukherjee, Cardiology, Yale University School of Medicine, USA; Dr. S. Yajnik, Director, Diabetes Center, KEM Hospital, Pune, Prof. Koneti Rao, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA; Dr. Vijayalakshmi, Pediatric Cardiologist, SJIC, Bengaluru; Dr. Vivian Fonseca, Professor of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, USA. In 2008: Dr. Shashank Joshi, Mumbai, Dr. Sandhya Kamath, Mumbai; Dr. Prakash Deedwania, UCSF, USA; Dr. Undurti Das, Cleveland, USA; Dr. Khalilullah, Heart center, New Delhi; Renu Saxena, Prof. and HOD Hematology, AIIMS New Delhi; Dr. Nikhil Tandon, India. Special Recognition Awards; Dr. Devi P. Shetty and Dr. Mohsin Wali USA. In 2010: Sekar Kartiseran, Professor, Harvard Medical School, USA; Dr. Usha Sriram, Chennai, India; Dr. Kris Vijay, President Arizona Chapter ACC, USA; Dr. Ravi R. Kasliwal, HOD Cardiology, Medanta, New Delhi; Dr. Dipti Itchhaporia, Governor, Southern California Chapter ACC, USA. Dr. Sridhar Dwivedi, Prof. Delhi University, Dr. K.R. Suresh, Ex-President Vascular Society of India, Bengaluru; Lifetime Achievement Award; Professor Sir Vijay V, Kakkar. In 2013: Dr. Kris Vijay, Governor Arizona Chapter ACC, USA; Shri L. Gopalakrishna, Trustee PSG Institutions, Coimbatore, Dr. J.S. Bhuvaneshwar, HOD Cardiology PSG Medical College, Lifetime Achievement Awards: Dr. J.S.N. Murthy and Dr. Vijay Viswanathan; Dr. R. Meera Professor, Community Health, PSG Institution, Dr. Manish Bansal, Cardiology Medanta, The Medicity, New Delhi.

After spending three decades (1980-2015) exploring opportunities to develop US-India collaborative projects, I decided to close my US office of SASAT in 2015. Since my retirement from the university (2012), I have been concentrating only on projects that I do in India. SASAT headquarters now is located in the Division of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology, Medanta, The Medicity. SASAT is an integrated part of this division. Dr. Ravi Kasliwal is the President of SASAT. I am confident that he and his young associates will continue the activities of this organization, which is the brainchild of many National and International experts. In an essay of this kind, I will not be able to mention the names of all the individuals who had contributed to the success of this professional society. Having said that, I would like to acknowledge the active participation of all of those, who willingly joined in the National and International efforts of this organization. I also would like to acknowledge my appreciation and heartfelt thanks to Jaypee Medical Publishers, KontentWorx and Macmillan Medical Communications, New Delhi, who published our monographs.

Combined contribution of SASAT and ISAR over a quarter of a century to our understanding of pathophysiology of cardiometabolic disease is significant and commendable. SASAT has over the years championed the educational activities not only in India, but also in the United States (NATF) and in Europe (IUA). Whereas ISAR through its affiliation with International Atherosclerosis Society (a federation of 64 member organizations worldwide representing 54 Nations) has done similar promotional work in the areas of experimental research related to pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. I, for one, strongly feel that the time has come for us to unite, develop network, and promote joint activities, which are complementary, so that we can together develop a much needed robust platform, to address the issue related to these chronic diseases of great public health importance.

  South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis Publications Top

  1. Rao GHR: Handbook of Platelet Physiology and Pharmacology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1999
  2. Rao GHR, VJ Kakkar: Coronary Artery Disease in South Asians: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2001
  3. Rao GHR, S. Thanikachalam: Coronary Artery Disease: Risk Factors, Pathophysiology and Prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2005
  4. Rao GHR, Ted Eastlund, Latha Jagannathan: Handbook of Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine, Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2006
  5. V. Mohan, Rao GHR: Diabetes Mellitus (Type-2): Epidemiology, Risk Management and Prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2007
  6. Rao GHR, Evi Kalodiki, Wendy A. Leong, Jawed Fareed: Clinical Handbook of Management of Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. KontentWorx, New Delhi, India, 2014
  7. Rao GHR: Handbook of Coronary Artery Disease. Macmillan Medical Communications, New Delhi, India, 2016.
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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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www.sasat.org/index.php?content_id = 161

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(CITATION) SASAT and task force on generic LMWHs. South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis proposal for regulatory guidelines for…

E Kalodiki, W Leon - Clin Appl Thromb Hemost, 2009

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J Fareed, RL Bick, G Rao, SZ Goldhaber… - … Applied thrombosis/…, 2008 - cat.sagepub.com

New and generic anticoagulants and biosimilars: Safety considerations

E Kalodiki, J Fareed - Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/…, 2011 - cat.sagepub.com

(HTML) Regulatory Review and Approval Processes Under Current US Guidelines and Across the Globe

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▶ 52:20

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v = wzKMwcoqjW0

October 12, 2014 - Uploaded by OfficialKalam.com

South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis organized its Sixth International Symposium at Hyderabad, India October 19-21, 2004. Highlight of the conference was a video-conference for an hour with President Abdul APJ Kalam.


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