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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-12

Clinical and angiographic profile of young patients with ischemic heart disease: A central India study

1 Ex-Associate Professor, Department of Cardiology, GMCH and SSH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Senior Consultant Cardiologist, Bisne Heart Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Sunita Dinkar Kumbhalkar
No. 86, Rajiv Nagar, Nagpur - 440 025, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JCPC.JCPC_22_18

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Objective: The present study was undertaken in young patients of ischemic heart disease (IHD) to assess clinical, biochemical and angiographic profile, conventional and newer risk factors, and correlation of risk factors with significant and nonsignificant coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in 70 cases of young IHD (male ≤35 years and females ≤40 years). Patients were evaluated for clinical, biochemical and angiographic profiles, and conventional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and family history of premature CAD (PCAD). Newer risk factors such as lipoprotein (a) (Lp [a]), homocysteine, and plasma fibrinogen were also assessed in some (n = 44) cases. Results: Mean age of patients was 32.97 ± 3.93 years; 11 (15.7%) were women. Various risk factors such as tobacco/gutka chewing, HT, smoking, DM, and family history of PCAD were observed in 35.7%, 22.8%, 17.1%, 11.5%, and 8.6% of patients, respectively. Nearly 77.6% of patients presented with anterior wall myocardial infarction and 61.4% were having moderate left ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) were increased in 38.6%, 41.4%, 32.9%, and 25.7% patients, respectively. Newer risk factors such as Lp (a), homocysteine, and plasma fibrinogen were elevated in 61.4%, 77.3%, and 18.2% of patients, respectively. On coronary angiography, single-vessel disease was found in more than half of the patients (57.1%) followed by double-vessel disease (11.5%) and triple-vessel disease (7.1%). Coronary angiogram was normal in 24.3% of patients. Positive family history of PCAD, serum TGs, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with significant CAD as compared to nonsignificant CAD, whereas no such correlation was found in relation to newer risk factors. Conclusion: Indian males in South Asian population appear more prone to develop CAD; therefore, screening for risk factors should start at an earlier age. Smoking and tobacco chewing cessation, promotion of physical activities, and healthy dietary pattern have to be strongly encouraged in this vulnerable group.

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