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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 56-63

Clinical presentation and 2-year mortality outcomes in acute heart failure in a tertiary care hospital in South India: A retrospective cohort study

1 Department of Cardiology, SRM MCH and RC, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, SRM MCH and RC, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Melvin George
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, SRM MCH and RC, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram - 603 203, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JCPC.JCPC_45_18

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Background: Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. We sought to describe the clinical epidemiology of HF from a representative sample in a tertiary care setting and to evaluate the factors which could increase the mortality risk in the study patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was carried out among patients who had been admitted with a diagnosis of acute HF from 2013 to 2017. Demographic data, history, laboratory investigations, data on medication clinical variables, and in-hospital outcomes were obtained from the patient's hospital records. The patients were assessed through the telephonic interview for mortality outcomes. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) and all values of P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 355 acute heart failure (AHF) patients were included in the study with a mean age of 57.78 ± 12.78 years. The most common etiologies among the study patients were ischemic heart disease (58%) and Dilated Cardiomyopathy (24.79%). The in-hospital and 2-year mortality was found to be 104 (29.3%) and 179 (50.4%), respectively. The 2-year mortality was significantly higher in patients with ischemic HF than that of nonischemic HF (119 [57.8%] vs. 58 [39.5%], P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that elderly age, the presence of diastolic dysfunction and higher levels of total leukocyte count (TLC) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion: The mortality rate in AHF is higher among ischemic HF than nonischemic HF. The major factors contributing to the 2-year mortality rate among AHF were elderly age, diastolic dysfunction, and high-TLC.

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