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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 37-43

Effectiveness of a home-based cardiovascular disease prevention program during the COVID-19 pandemic

1 Department of Preventive Cardiology, Cardiac Wellness Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Cardiology, ACCiST Centre, Kauvery Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Apollo Main Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Cardiology, Fortis Malar Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Cardiology, Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
PhD Priya Chockalingam
MBBS, MRCPCH, PhD, Cardiac Wellness Institute, No. 21, 5th Avenue, Besant Nagar, Chennai - 600 090, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcpc.jcpc_53_21

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Purpose: Home-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) primary prevention (HBPP) and cardiac rehabilitation (HBCR) programs which occupied a small proportion of the overall Preventive Cardiology work in the past have become mainstream during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of a home-based CVD prevention program implemented during the pandemic in India. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on prepandemic and pandemic enrollees. Health behavior, CVD risk factors, physical and mental component score (PCS, MCS) from SF-12 questionnaire, body mass index (BMI), 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed. A multidisciplinary team consisting of Physician, Physiotherapist, Dietician, and Counseling Psychologist provided the program using telehealth platforms. Results: Of the 66 subjects (55 ± 13 years, 73% male), 17 (26%) enrolled prepandemic and 49 (74%) enrolled during pandemic, 28 (42%) were HBPP, and 38 (58%) were HBCR participants. Majority of the subjects (n = 51, 77%) with significantly more HBCR than HBPP participants harbored 4 or more risk factors (P = 0.04). In the 60 (91%) program completers, BMI, 6MWD, PCS, and MCS had improved significantly. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins had improved significantly in affected subjects. Completely home-based participants (n = 44, 67%) who never had any in-person contact with the team during the program also showed significant improvement. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Comprehensive home-based CVD prevention programs are effective in improving anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, and psychosocial parameters, are a safe alternative to conventional programs, and could potentially become the standard-of-care in the postpandemic era.

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