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Fragmented QRS: A simple electrocardiographic prognostic marker in cardiovascular disease
Sita Ram Mittal
July-September 2016, 5(3):94-98
Fragmented QRS is defined as the presence of R' wave or notching of R or S wave in the presence of narrow QRS. It indicates heterogeneous depolarization of the ventricular myocardium that can occur due to ischemia, fibrosis, or scar. It may also be a marker of coronary microvascular dysfunction. In the context of epicardial coronary artery disease, it is associated with multivessel disease and greater incidence of cardiac events. It has been shown to be an indicator of higher incidence of arrhythmias and sudden death in arrhythmic right ventricular dysplasia, Brugada syndrome, and acquired long QT syndrome. Its regression following cardiac resynchronization therapy suggests electrical reverse remodeling. It has also been shown to be a marker of myocardial involvement in congenital heart diseases and is helpful in diagnosing subclinical cardiac involvement in various systemic diseases.
  72,117 1,922 6
Diagonal earlobe crease: Prevalence and association with medical ailments
Yugantara Ramesh Kadam, Yogesh M Shah, Parth Kore
April-June 2018, 7(2):49-53
Context: It has been hypothesized that diagonal earlobe crease (DELC), “Frank's sign” is indicative of coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). Several studies have confirmed an association between DELC and cardiac morbidity, mortality, and hypertension (HTN). However, some studies have not found any significant association. Aims: This study aims to find out the prevalence of DELC and its association with CAD, DM, and HTN. Settings and Design: Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Corporation area. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Subjects and Methods: Study participants: Adults from 18 to 60 years age. Inclusion criteria: willing to participate in the study Exclusion criteria: Wearing heavy ear rings and excessive normal generalized wrinkling of the skin. Sample size: Sample size 6310, determined after a pilot study revealing DELC in 1.5%. Sampling technique: Two-stage cluster sampling. Duration of study: 6 months. Study tools: Predesigned, pilot tested pro forma. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 22 software. Prevalence and percentages were calculated, and Chi-square test was applied. Results: Out of 6638 participants, 179 had DELC. The prevalence of bilateral DELC was 2.7%. The prevalence was significantly high among males (4.13%) and in the 51–60 years age group (5.29%). The prevalence of Grade 3 DELC was high and 91% of young adults had Grade 3 DELC. There were 408 (6.15%) participants who gave a history of CAD, 827 (12.46%) of DM, and 670 (10.09%) HTN. Significantly high association observed between DELC and CAD, DM, and HTN. CAD, DM, and HTN were significantly associated with Grade 3. Conclusions: The prevalence of bilateral DELC was 2.7% and is significantly associated with CAD, DM, and HTN.
  29,600 759 2
Exercise for prevention of cardiovascular disease: Evidence-based recommendations
Geevar Zachariah, Anoop George Alex
July-September 2017, 6(3):109-114
Sedentary lifestyle is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In India, a large percentage of the people are physically inactive with fewer than 10% engaging in recreational physical activity. Physical activity has many beneficial effects on the risk factors for CVD. Apart from improving fitness level, it decreases myocardial oxygen demand and improves myocardial perfusion. There is an inverse association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. In primary prevention, physical inactivity is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk for coronary events. In secondary prevention, data confirm the existence of an inverse dose–response relationship between cardiovascular fitness and the all-cause mortality in large populations of cardiovascular patients. Guidelines from the American authorities as well as the European Society of Cardiology provide specific recommendations for exercise depending on the clinical setting (primary or secondary prevention of CVD) and the patient-specific factors (the patient's physical activity level and the perceived CVD risk). The present review summarizes the clinical evidence regarding the role of exercise in CVD prevention and the exercise recommendations from the leading Cardiac societies.
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Oats: A multi-functional grain
Purvi Varma, Hitha Bhankharia, Shikha Bhatia
January-March 2016, 5(1):9-17
Oats are predominantly a European and North American crop, as they have cool moist climate; Russia, Canada, the United States, Finland, and Poland are leading oat producing countries. Oats have been used as livestock and human foods since ancient times. Oats (Avena sativa) is a class of cereal grain essentially grown for human consumption as well as for livestock fodder. Food industry fundamentally alter agricultural commodities into foods making it edible, palatable as well as appealing; by innumerable physical and chemical operations increasing shelf-life, bioavailability of the nutrients, stabilizing colour, flavour along with increase in the economic value of the grain. Recent observational and human interventional studies indicate that oats can have an impact on various non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes; obesity and hypertension etc. Therefore it is important to increase awareness of oats and its health benefits among individuals thereby encouraging them to increase the frequency of oats in the diet. In the year 1997, USFDA approved the use of a health claim "3g/day of oat Beta- glucan may help lower blood total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol". Over all consumption of oats has increased in the recent years due to its nutritional benefits; presence of Beta-glucan, antioxidants like Avenanthramides, vitamin E (tocotrienols and tocopherols).
  18,408 1,473 16
Saturated fats and cardiovascular disease risk: A review
Ishi Khosla, Gayatri C Khosla1
April-June 2017, 6(2):56-59
Saturated fats have been in the line of fire for more than three decades. The major mistake in understanding fats was to equate all saturated fatty acids as one. The oversimplification of the relationship of saturated fats with cardiovascular disease (CVD) led to unwarranted removal of some valuable fats from our diets. Recently, the relationship of dietary saturated fats and that of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to CVD risk has been reevaluated. All saturated fats are not equal and these fats are not as bad as they are made out to be. Thus, not all SFAs in natural fats are atherogenic (formation of fatty deposits in arteries). Butter, clarified butter (desi ghee), coconut oil, and palm oil as a part of a healthy diet are not contraindicated. The review of literature clearly suggests a relook at saturated fats with respect to atherogenicity and over health.
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Marathon running for amateurs: Benefits and risks
Nitin Burkule
October-December 2016, 5(4):113-124
The habitual level of physical activity of the human race has significantly and abruptly declined in the last few generations due to technological developments. The professional societies and government health agencies have published minimum physical activity requirement guidelines to educate the masses about the importance of exercise and to reduce cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality at the population level. There is growing participation in marathon running by amateur, middle-aged cases with a belief that more intense exercise will give incremental health benefits. Experts have cautioned the nonathlete amateurs about the "exercise paradox" and probable deleterious effects of high-intensity prolonged exercise on CV and musculoskeletal system. The epidemiological studies suggest a "reverse J shaped" relationship between running intensity and CV mortality. The highest benefits of reduction in CV and all-cause mortality are achieved at a lower intensity of running while the benefits tend to get blunted at a higher intensity of running. The physicians should have a balanced discussion with the amateur runners training for a marathon, about risks and benefits of high-intensity exercise, and should evaluate them to rule out the occult coronary disease.
  11,212 1,004 6
Mobile communication: Boon or bane? Possible dangers of mobile phone usage
Jitendra Kumar Meena, Mahendra Singh Rathore
April-June 2017, 6(2):70-72
The ever-increasing use of radio devices (mobile phones) has led to widespread concerns among consumers, operators, and governmental authorities regarding environmental and health risks of their use. Various studies have demonstrated the relationship of radiowave exposure with biological effects in the body ranging from molecular to organ scale damage. However, most of them considerably failed to establish a causal association primarily owing to potential biases and errors in their conduct and analysis. Mobile usage also has both social and environmental impacts which have prompted the public health agencies to enforce certain regulations which however remain controversial due to lack of credible research evidence. In such scenario, it is recommended that mobile exposure should be minimized, especially among vulnerable populations. In addition, unbiased high-quality research is needed so as to bring more clarity to the subject and guide governmental policy and regulations.
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QT interval – Its measurement and clinical significance
Sita Ram Mittal
April-June 2019, 8(2):71-79
QT interval extends from the beginning of QRS complex to the end of T wave. Thus, it includes the duration of ventricular depolarization (QRS) and repolarization (J point to end of T wave). It corresponds to the duration of cellular action potential. “long-” and “short”-QT intervals are considered as risk markers for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. In the last decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding about measurement and significance of QT interval. We have made an attempt to review the literature to find the limitations and queries surrounding the present status of measurement of QT interval and its significance as a risk marker for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death.
  10,396 818 3
Hypertension management: Old drug revisited - Cilnidipine
Soumitra Kumar
January-March 2017, 6(1):24-26
Cilnidipine is a promising fourth-generation calcium channel blocker which along with inhibition of the L-type Ca 2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, also inhibits the N-type Ca 2+ channels in sympathetic neurons. As a result, in addition to hypotensive action secondary to vascular relaxation, it also demonstrates significant sympatholytic action, whereby it attenuates platelet activation (and consequent arterial thrombosis), tachycardia, oxidative stress, and also inhibits activation of renin-angiotensin system in blood vessels. By virtue of the latter effect, they relieve constriction of postglomerular vessels and thereby ameliorate glomerular hypertension and render renoprotective effect. Besides these, cilnidipine also improves insulin resistance, nitric oxide production, and protects against retinal neuronal injury. Thus, it is expected to be a very useful addition in the current armamentarium for the treatment of hypertension.
  10,372 823 2
Lipid Association of India Expert Consensus Statement on Management of Dyslipidemia in Indians 2016: Part 1 - Executive summary
Shamanna S Iyengar, Raman Puri, SN Narasingan
April-June 2016, 5(2):51-61
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Syncope: Approach to diagnosis
Om Murti Anil
July-September 2016, 5(3):84-93
Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness (LOC) due to transient global cerebral hypoperfusion characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous complete recovery. Here, the term "transient LOC" encompasses all disorders characterized by self-limited LOC irrespective of the mechanism. Central point in pathophysiology of the development of syncope is fall in systemic blood pressure (BP) with a decrease in global cerebral blood flow. The evaluation and treatment of syncope are very challenging because syncope is not the only cause of transient LOC. Moreover, symptoms of syncope are fleeting, patient is usually asymptomatic at the time of evaluation, and most of the events are often unwitnessed. The guiding principle of assessment is to differentiate syncope from other causes of transient LOC and the more benign causes of syncope from the potentially serious ones. Initial assessment of syncope consists of a detailed history and examination complemented by 12-lead electrocardiography and supine and standing BP. If the cause is suspected, then further investigations may be needed to confirm the particular disorder. A deliberate approach based on initial risk stratification is more likely to give a correct diagnosis. Despite the difficulties, a thorough evaluation of the cause of syncope is warranted in all patients, not just in those deemed to be at high mortality risk. The goal in every case should be to determine the cause with sufficient confidence to provide a reliable assessment of prognosis and treatment options.
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Incidence and clinical profile of patients with frozen shoulder after cardiac surgery
M Chokkalingam, S Saradha, A Navitha, Pradeep G Nayar
October-December 2017, 6(4):142-146
Background: Frozen shoulder is a condition characterized by pain and global restriction of movement with loss of external rotation. Cardiac surgery may predispose frozen shoulder as patients tend to immobilize their upper limbs after surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical profile of patients presenting with symptoms of periarthritis shoulder and to determine the incidence of frozen shoulder among patients undergoing cardiac surgery as well as to find the factors associated with its development. Methods: It is a clinical observational study done in the Cardiology Department of Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, between August 2015 and May 2016, on 100 patients who underwent cardiac surgery and attended the follow-up session as an outpatient. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized questionnaire. Respondents presenting with pain and restricted movement of shoulder joint with positive limitation in lateral rotation, abduction, and medial rotation (LAM) test were considered to have frozen shoulder. Each participant was followed up for 3 months postcardiac surgery. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 53.63 ± 13.03 years, and 65% were males. Of the 100 participants, 20 (20%) developed frozen shoulder. Age (P < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (<0.01), hypertension (P < 0.001), type of surgery (P < 0.02), and regularity of physiotherapy follow-up (P < 0.01) had significant association with positive LAM test on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate logistic regression analysis, only hypertension and physiotherapy regularity were found to have a trend toward a significant independent association with the occurrence of frozen shoulder (P = 0.090 and 0.097, respectively). Conclusion: The present study shows that cardiac surgery increases the risk of developing frozen shoulder during the early postoperative period. Statistically significant correlation existed between positive LAM test and age of the patients, presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, type of cardiac surgery, and the regularity of physiotherapy follow-up.
  8,657 596 2
Role of electrocardiogram in identification of culprit vessel occlusion in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction in relation to coronary angiography
Kunal K Salunke, Rajesh J Khyalappa
October-December 2017, 6(4):128-132
Objective: The objective of the study is to study the usefulness of electrocardiography in localizing the culprit vessel in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the electrocardiogram (ECG) findings by comparing them with coronary angiographic findings. Materials and Methods: This study is prospective observational study, conducted on fifty patients in tertiary care center attached to medical college. Patients with ST-segment elevation in ECG was evaluated to identify culprit vessel and later correlated with their coronary angiography. Results: Among fifty patients in the study, 34 had anterior wall, and 16 had inferior wall myocardial infarction. ST↑ >1 mm in V4R, ST↓V3/ST↑LIII <0.5 were equally sensitive for diagnosing proximal right coronary artery occlusion. For left circumflex occlusion, ST elevation in lead III >lead II was the most sensitive and ratio of ST↓V3/ST↑LIII >1.2 was the most specific criterion. In anterior wall STEMI, 52.9% patients had occlusion proximal to first septal (S1), 17.6% had occlusion proximal to first diagonal (D1), 8.8% had occlusion distal to S1, and 20.5% had occlusion distal to D1. Q wave in aVL had maximum sensitivity for identifying occlusion proximal to D1 and Q wave in leads V4-V6 for occlusion distal to S1. Conclusion: The admission ECG in patients with STEMI is valuable not only for determining early reperfusion treatment, but also provides important information to guide clinical decision-making.
  7,347 1,716 2
Isolated infundibular pulmonary stenosis
Sita Ram Mittal
October-December 2018, 7(4):154-160
A case of isolated infundibular pulmonary stenosis is reported and literature is reviewed. Infundibular pulmonary stenosis is usually a part of tetralogy of Fallot or is associated with ventricular septal defect. Isolated infundibular pulmonary stenosis is rare. Patients may be asymptomatic in spite of significant stenosis. Dyspnea, chest pain, and presyncope or syncope on effort are common symptoms in significant obstruction. Ejection systolic murmur is best audible in the left 3rd intercostal space and increases on inspiration. Additional murmur of tricuspid regurgitation may appear if there is right ventricular failure. Absence of pulmonary valvular click and normal intensity and splitting of the second sound differentiate it from pulmonary valve stenosis. Electrocardiogram shows right ventricular overload. Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography shows right ventricular hypertrophy with narrowing of infundibulum, normal pulmonary valve, main pulmonary artery, and branch pulmonary arteries. Right ventricle and right atrium may dilate if there is right-sided failure with significant tricuspid regurgitation. Doppler evaluation reveals systolic gradient in the region of infundibulum with no additional gradient at the level of pulmonary valve, main pulmonary artery, or branch pulmonary arteries. Tricuspid regurgitation may be present. 2D echocardiography with Doppler evaluation also excludes other lesions. Angiography is usually not required. Surgery is safe and effective in relieving obstruction. Stent implantation is safe and effective in highly selected patients with discretely narrow circumferential stenotic segment and near-normal-sized peristenotic segment between the pulmonary and tricuspid valves.
  8,459 503 2
Skin manifestations of peripheral artery disease: Prevalence and diagnostic utility
Ejiroghene Martha Umuerri
July-September 2019, 8(3):121-125
Introduction: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common but underdiagnosed arm of the cardiovascular triad. Reliance on the presence of skin manifestations of chronic lower limb ischemia may result in clinical inertia in the diagnosis of PAD. Objective: Literature on the skin manifestations of PAD is limited. This paper aims to determine the prevalence and diagnostic value of skin manifestations of PAD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of consecutive adults with hypertension and diabetes attending the consultant medical outpatient department, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-city, Nigeria. Physical examination of the skin of the lower limbs for features suggestive of PAD and ankle-brachial index (ABI) were performed. A diagnosis of PAD was made if ABI < 0.9. Results: Of the 541 participants, 115 (21.3%) had skin changes suggestive of PAD, and 182 (33.6%) had low ABI < 0.9. Among participants with PAD, 65 (35.7%) had skin manifestations suggestive of PAD. The association between PAD and skin manifestations suggestive of PAD was significant (χ2 = 34.248,P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the presence of skin manifestations as a diagnostic tool for PAD compared with low ABI was 35.7%, 86.1%, 56.5%, and 72.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Among participants with PAD, the prevalence of skin manifestations of suggestive of PAD was 35.7%. Reliance on the presence of skin changes for diagnosis of PAD may result in missed or delayed diagnosis because of its low sensitivity and positive predictive value.
  8,226 409 -
Management options for coronary microvascular dysfunction: Present status and future perspectives
Sita Ram Mittal
January-March 2016, 5(1):18-24
Coronary micro vessels are not visible on coronary angiography. These include prearterioles, arterioles, and capillaries. Significant number of patients of angina have coronary microvascular dysfunction alone or in combination with stenosis and/or spasm of epicardial coronary arteries. Its management is challenging. Several different therapeutic options have been tried with variable success. The present review provides overview of the available evidence with various therapeutic modalities for the treatment of microvascular angina.
  7,871 682 2
Prevention of cardiovascular disease in India: Barriers and opportunities for nursing
Anice George, Sulochana Badagabettu, Kathy Berra, Linu Sara George, Veena Kamath, Latha Thimmappa
April-June 2018, 7(2):72-77
Currently, the nursing profession lacks specialized training, to be a part of preventive cardiovascular healthcare team. The article aims to describe the obstacles Indian nurses face in becoming active and valued members of the cardiovascular healthcare team and to propose solutions. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) imposes substantial and increasing physical, psychological, societal, and financial burdens. More emphasis needs to be placed on preventive measures, which should be made available and affordable in rural as well as urban areas. Nurses are well positioned to be leaders in these initiatives. However, nurses in India face numerous obstacles in providing optimal care, including a significant shortage of trained personnel. Nursing education at advanced levels needs to be standardized and should reflect core competencies. Appropriate use of nursing resources in CVD prevention can allow physicians to treat the sickest patients, reduce cost of care, and help relieve the human burden of morbidity and mortality due to CVD.
  7,920 622 1
The role of optimal medical therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease
JPS Sawhney, Dhiman Kahali, Bhupen Desai, Suresh KP Kumar, M Vishvanathan, Vishal Rastogi
April-June 2018, 7(2):60-71
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the globe. The fact that prevalence and mortality due to CAD are declining in developed countries cannot be held true in developing countries. Almost fourfold increase in CAD prevalence has been reported in India in the past 40 years. This incidence is likely to increase further in the coming years. The heterogeneity of the disease presentation is an important challenge in the management of these patients, and the current therapies are not universally effective in controlling these symptoms. Even with the advancements in medical therapies over the last two decades, it is unclear whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) provides a prognostic advantage over optimal medical therapy (OMT) in the management of stable angina patients. The current review primarily focuses on the use of OMT for stable CAD patients and also discusses the role of coronary revascularization, especially PCI, in the management of these patients. This is based on evidence-based recommendations and guidelines.
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Soluble ST2: A biomarker to monitor heart failure progression and treatment
Marin Nishimura, Justin Sharim, Yu Horiuchi, Olga Barnett, Nicholas Wettersten, Alan S Maisel
October-December 2018, 7(4):148-153
Measurement of cardiac biomarkers has become routine for the care of patients with heart failure (HF). While troponin and natriuretic peptides are well-entrenched in the guidelines, soluble ST2 (sST2) is a novel biomarker that has shown consistent performance and is ready for clinical use. Multiple studies support the use of sST2 in both acute and chronic HF for prognostication. We suggest a novel scheme to guide HF management based on ambulatory sST2 levels.
  7,575 733 5
Cholesterol controversy
G Vijayaraghavan
January-March 2018, 7(1):2-4
  7,597 662 -
Assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values in chronic periodontitis patients with and without cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study
D Deepa, Chandni Gupta, Abhishek Gupta
October-December 2016, 5(4):108-112
Background: Periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation and destruction of supporting tissues of the affected teeth. Pro-inflammatory cytokines originating at the site of local pathology activate hepatocytes to produce acute-phase proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP). Numerous cross-sectional studies have suggested that chronic periodontitis is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked by inflammatory factors including CRP. Materials and Methods: A total of forty patients, twenty with chronic periodontitis only with no CVD (Group A) and twenty with CVD and chronic periodontitis (Group B), were selected for the study. Clinical parameters including gingival index (GI), plaque index, gingival bleeding index, Pocket probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. In addition, high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) levels were measured from the peripheral blood using turbidimetric immunoassay technique. Results: As compared to the patients in Group A, those in Group B had more severe periodontitis with greater CAL (6.02 ± 0.53 mm vs. 6.63 ± 0.85 mm, P = 0.009), probing pocket depth (PPD) (5.20 ± 0.31 mm vs. 5.73 ± 0.52 mm, P < 0.001), and GI score (2.25 ± 0.51 vs. 2.65 ± 0.76, P = 0.06). Group B patients also had significantly higher hsCRP levels (12.3 ± 8.84 mg/L vs. 2.28 ± 0.38 mg/L; P < 0.001). The hsCRP levels had a significant positive correlation with PPD and GI. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the presence of CVD was independently associated with elevated hsCRP levels in the study population. Conclusion: The present study shows that CVD is associated with more severe periodontitis which is reflected in higher hsCRP levels. In addition, elevated hsCRP showed an independent association with CVD, incremental to various periodontitis measures. These findings suggest that periodontitis may add to the inflammation burden of the individual, which may potentially increase inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and thus the risk for cardiovascular events.
  5,502 2,303 1
Association of depression, anxiety, and stress with myocardial infarction: A case–control study
MT Manoj, KA Joseph, Govindan Vijayaraghavan
July-September 2018, 7(3):86-92
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI), the most common cardiovascular disease, has assumed an epidemic proportion today. Higher prevalence of MI is reported from India (a low-middle income country) with the state of Kerala topping the list. Limited data exist on the impact of psychosocial factors on MI in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 cases (with MI) and 100 controls (without MI and matched for age and gender) were selected using consecutive sampling from a tertiary hospital in Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Data on depression, anxiety and stress were collected using the depression, anxiety and stress scales (DASS 21). Chi-square test was used to study the association of the variables under study with MI. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for confounders. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 99% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results: Depression (35% vs. 20%, P = 0.024), anxiety (41% vs. 14%, P < 0.001) and stress (36% vs. 15%, P = 0.002) had a statistically significant association with MI on comparing cases vs. controls. Higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress were associated with an increased risk of MI with OR of 2.790, 6.429, and 3.470, respectively. Conclusion: Depression, anxiety and stress were associated with MI. Prospective studies are required to confirm our findings.
  7,038 751 7
The Lipid Association of India Expert Consensus Statement 2016: A sea change for management of dyslipidemia in Indians
Enas A Enas, TS Dharmarajan
April-June 2016, 5(2):62-66
  6,888 863 7
Medication adherence and its determinants in myocardial infarction patients: An Indian scenario
Satish Balaji Gonarkar, Priti Pravin Dhande
January-March 2016, 5(1):2-8
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death. Along with lifestyle factors, poor medication adherence is one of the causes. This study was planned to find out the level of adherence in post-MI patients and its related factors. Objectives: Monitoring medication adherence in patients of MI attending cardiac outpatient department and to reveal causes of nonadherence to drug therapy in them. Methods: One hundred and one newly diagnosed MI patients were included in the study. Data collected were patient characteristics, habits, comorbidities, and drugs prescribed. Morisky 8 item scale was used to find out the medication adherence at the end of 1 st and 6 th month of cardiac event. Data were analyzed using McNemar test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Results: Most common preventive cardiovascular drugs given were aspirin, clopidogrel, and statins, 98%, 88.1%, and 90%, respectively. Medication adherence at 6 th month post-MI was significantly decreased compared to 1 st month (P < 0.0001). Factors which were related to good adherence were associated comorbidities such as hypertension (P = 0.017), age group of 56-65 years (P = 0.049), higher education (P = 0.045), employees (P = 0.008), and nonsmoker (P = 0.023). Determinants associated with poor adherence were affordability (P = 0.02) and medication complexity (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Medication adherence in post-MI subjects of our study was seen to be reducing over 6 months due to factors such as low monthly income and low educational status of the subjects. Employed, higher educated, and those with comorbidities showed good adherence.
  6,983 767 1
Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Left Ventricular Thrombus: A Pilot Prospective Randomized Outcome Blinded Study Investigating Size Reduction or Resolution of Left Ventricular Thrombus
W Yus Haniff W. Isa, Niny Hwong, Ahmad Khairuddin Mohamed Yusof, Zurkurnai Yusof, Ng Seng Loong, Nadiah Wan-Arfah, Nyi Nyi Naing
October-December 2020, 9(4):150-154
Background: Treatment of the left ventricular thrombus (LVT) with Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin may lead to longer hospitalization. Thus, the potential of non-VKA oral anticoagulants as alternative to warfarin need to be explored. This study aims to investigate the size reduction or resolution of LVT with apixaban compared to conventional warfarin. Materials and Methods: This is a pilot, prospective, single-center, randomized, single-blinded outcome study with patients diagnosed with LVT. Patients diagnosed with LVT by echocardiography were randomized into two treatment groups: apixaban or warfarin, with target international normalized ratio 2–3. Echocardiography was repeated at weeks 6 and 12 to assess the LVT size. The percentage of reduction or total resolution during the first 12 weeks was the primary endpoint. Repeated measure ANCOVA was used to evaluate the differences in left ventricular (LV) thrombus size between treatment groups. Results: Twenty-seven patients were recruited: 14 were treated with apixaban and 13 patients with warfarin. Thirteen patients completed treatment in the apixaban arm with one patient lost to follow-up, and one death observed. In the warfarin arm, nine patients completed the study follow-up, and four died during the follow-up. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) reduction in LV thrombus size in apixaban arm was 65.1% (SD 31.3) versus warfarin arm, 61.5% (SD 44.0) at the 12th week follow-up (P = 0.816). Safety outcomes were similar with both treatment arms. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that apixaban may have similar effectiveness and safety to warfarin for LVT resolution.
  7,019 563 9